Hair loss in women can be both pathological and physiological. In the pathological process of hair loss, uniform uniformity or complete absence of hair (baldness) in a certain area of the head is possible. Common causes of hair loss in women are:
- infectious diseases
- improper hair care
- lack of microelements and vitamins
- diet for weight loss
- hormonal disorders
- hereditary factor
- taking certain medicines
Elimination of some of these factors helps normalize growth and restore lost hair. Therefore, it is very important for the effectiveness of the treatment of baldness to correctly identify the provoking factors that caused hair loss, this allows us to make a number of modern methods of examining a woman - a trichogram of hair, spectral analysis of the hair, the study of the hormonal background, a blood test. As a result of the diagnosis, the trichologist will determine the type of the disease and prescribe an individual course of therapy.
A person every day there is a natural loss of an average of 60 to 100 hairs. And the balance of newly growing and dropping hair is about the same. However, when there are provoking factors, hair loss is intense, leading to alopecia.
When there is a significant thinning of hair, the cause should be sought 3 months earlier. Why? The natural life cycle of the hair is on average 2-7 years, after which the hair is prepared for removal within 2-3 weeks, and within 3-4 months the phase of loss occurs.
Diagnostic methods for hair loss in women
The causes of severe hair loss in women, unlike men's alopecia are not so simple, since 90% of men suffer from hair loss due to a hereditary factor. And female hair loss or excessive hair loss is caused by a variety of circumstances and body conditions.
To identify this, it is possible to conduct the following diagnostic tests, which will allow us to determine the main triggering factor by an exclusion method:
- Hormonal background - luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, androstenedione, prolactin , DHEA, testosterone
- Thyroid hormones - T4, T3, TTG
- General blood analysis
- Total iron-binding capacity, iron and ferritin in the blood
- Test for syphilis
- Densitometry - determines even the smallest changes in the optical density of hair
- Scalp biopsy - examination of the scalp (diameter 4 mm) under a microscope
- Extension is a method of determining whether there is an increased loss of hair, in which the expert carefully pulls out a hair bundle (100 pieces), in the normal state, 1-3 hair extends, more than 3 is considered an increased loss.
The main factors affecting excessive hair loss
There are several reasons for hair loss, however, the most frequent of them is androgenic alopecia (see causes and methods of treatment ).
Pregnancy and postpartum period
When pregnancy nutrients, vitamins, microelements, the body distributes in favor of the child for its full growth and development. And their lack is reflected on a condition of a skin, fingernails or nails and hair of the woman. When the child was born, the female organism undergoes hormonal reorganization, which can become one of the causes of hair loss. Moreover, not many women in the first year of life have child care assistants, and fatigue, chronic fatigue, sleepless nights can contribute to a general deterioration in health, which affects the condition of hair, nails, and skin.
In the presence of polycystosis in a woman, there is a violation of the function of the ovaries (the main sexual glands) and there is an insufficient production of female sex hormones - estrogens. Therefore, in the body, male sex hormones begin to predominate, and an excess of testosterone can cause excessive hair loss.
Lack of iron in the body (anemia)
Since women experience monthly blood loss during menstruation, they often suffer from iron deficiency anemia, the clinical signs of which can be manifested by the deterioration of the condition of the hair, skin, and nails. Rigid diets for weight loss, vegetarianism , excessive physical activity can lead to the development of anemia and as a consequence to hair loss (see iron preparations for anemia ).
Hypothyroidism - the cause of hair loss
With a decrease in thyroid function ( hypothyroidism ), the hair becomes thinner, becomes more brittle, and falls more intensively. In addition, women are disrupted by the menstrual cycle, there is increased fatigue, weakness, the skin becomes drier. If such symptoms occur, you should consult an endocrinologist and undergo a complete thyroid examination.
Fungal diseases of scalp
Fungal diseases lead to nest alopecia, when exposure to pathogenic fungi leads to damage to the hair follicles. In the course of time, on the scalp, there are rounded areas devoid of hair, since the mycelium deprives the hair of nutrients and in these places the hair no longer grows. The antifungal medications prescribed by the doctor in tablets, as well as the use of various shampoos and ointments to treat them, help in the fight against fungal agents.
Nervous diseases, disorders of the autonomic nervous system ( vegetative-vascular dystonia ), constant stresses lead to narrowing of the vessels - this is also one of the causes of hair loss in both men and women, as the nutrition of the hair follicle worsens.
Chronic diseases of the body
Any chronic or systemic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, see lupus erythematosus - symptoms ), poisoning, intoxications, endocrine disorders, infectious diseases (tuberculosis, pneumonia), as well as syphilis or polycystic ovaries provoke intense hair loss. Usually, in addition to aesthetic discomfort, there are other symptoms, malaise, disturbances in the body. Therefore, a woman must necessarily undergo a comprehensive examination and determine the cause of a sharp hair loss, since without eliminating the internal causes of alopecia, most external methods of treating hair loss will be ineffective.
Some drugs have such a side effect
There are about a hundred of such medicines, especially long-term therapy with such drugs - hormonal preparations, oral contraceptives , antidepressants , aspirin, laxatives , etc., have a negative effect on the hair condition.
Treatment of oncology (irradiation, chemotherapy) causes anagenic alopecia. Care should be given to various means for weight loss (correction of the figure), some of them have a laxative effect, which reduces the absorption of trace elements, vitamins, leading to anemia and vitamin deficiency. And also they can contain selenium and salts of heavy metals, which leads to chronic poisoning and alopecia.
Traumatic and cosmetic causes
To the negative factors affecting the condition of the hair is their trauma and the use of chemical influences. This is a number of mechanical damages:
- African pigtails, dreadlocks, horse tight tail, special styling for complex hairstyles, hair extensions, rough combing, unintentional or intentional (trichotillomania). Hair tension leads to spasm, violation of blood supply to the hair follicles, nutrition decreases, hair is traumatized and hair loss occurs.
- Chemical procedures, such as discoloration, hair dyeing or chemical perm, even frequent drying with a hot hair dryer, have an adverse effect and, if misused, can cause hair thinning.
- Long or constant wearing of hairpieces, wigs, false strands, improper use of hair care products.
In the cold season, you should always wear headwear, as cold, as well as the abuse of caffeine lead to chronic spasm of the vessels of the scalp, causing additional loss of part of the hair.
Occurring scar processes on the scalp lead to baldness in women - cicatricial changes on the skin destroy the hair bulb and in this area the hair ceases to grow. This type of hair loss occurs due to skin lesions infections (tuberculosis, leishmaniasis), from thermal burns, radiation damage.