Overweight is wrong to call only an aesthetic problem. No doctor will advise to lose weight only for the purpose of external beauty, but strongly recommend to bring the weight back to normal for the prevention of the prevailing majority of existing diseases, in which extra kilos act as a serious risk factor.
There is a mass of methods of weight loss, as they say, for every taste, which can be found in the network, brochures, heard in the rumor of people: diets, exercises, drugs for weight loss, various teas and coffee, psycho-training. Some of the “super ways” promise to lose weight in a week, but at what cost?
So that after the rapid loss of extra kilos not to be in a hospital bed or to fall ill with a dangerous disease (against the background of reduced immunity), this question should be approached wisely. The decision to lose weight should be balanced, thoughtful and consistent with the doctor.
It is imperative to consult a doctor, since in many diseases (diabetes, cardiovascular pathologies, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, etc.) special recommendations are required. In this article we will tell you how to lose weight without harm to the health of a relatively healthy person (without serious health problems), how not to return to the previous weight, that is, how not to harm yourself in the pursuit of harmony.
Basic rules for safe weight loss
This process should be prepared both morally and physically - gradually increase physical activity, walk more. The right motivation for overweight people is to preserve health and prolong life. But the desire for a dubious slim ideal can end in a deep depression, because losing weight, we still will not become younger by 10 years.
Weight loss should be gradual, best of all - within six months or more.
Lose weight quickly and without harm to health is simply impossible. Rapid loss of body weight (more than 5 kg per month) is equivalent to shock therapy. Quickly acquired harmony, alas, will not bring the joy that was expected in anticipation of this event, since the whole body will be in a state of stress and imbalance:
- It creates a large load on the liver
since the breakdown of adipose tissue is accompanied by the release of toxins deposited in fats and their decay products. Disposal of harmful substances occurs in the liver, which cleanses the blood and removes toxins from the body. With rapid weight loss, the liver is unable to cope with such a load, which leads to poisoning of the body;
- Mass loss leads to changes in internal equilibrium and metabolic rate
Weight loss is accompanied by the breakdown of fats stored by the body. If this happens rapidly, the body begins to slow down the metabolism, thus including a defensive reaction. This creates a vicious circle - as soon as a person stops losing weight, the body, after such a rapid loss of stored fat, begins to postpone reserves even with a normal diet, trying to compensate for what’s gone. That is why dramatically thinner people also recover dramatically after they stop losing weight;
Outwardly, it looks like a flabby, sometimes sagging skin that definitely does not adorn the body, and even more so the face. Sagging skin loses its elasticity, and it is more difficult for it to return to its original state (see how to remove loose, sagging skin );
- Stiff diets lead to avitaminosis.
Loss of vitamins and not taking them with food often leads to hypovitaminosis and beriberi for some vitamins. For example, the rejection of fat leads to a violation of the assimilation of vitamin D (fat soluble, absorbed only if there is fat in the diet). Vitamin deficiency affects the condition of the skin (dryness, peeling), hair (lamination, loss), nails (brittleness, lamination), the condition of the teeth and gums and generally reduces immunity;
- Dramatic weight loss reduces immunity
Against the background of general stress and lack of calories, immunity suffers, which in turn is fraught with various infections (tuberculosis, frequent acute respiratory viral infections, herpes, etc.), activation of one's own conditionally pathogenic flora, exacerbation of chronic diseases;
- Memory impairment, lower blood pressure, loss of vital energy
If you use, for example, a low-carb diet, when not only fast simple carbohydrates (sweet, flour) are excluded, but also slow, complex (cereals, grain bread, root crops, durum wheat pasta) - which is an energy fuel for the brain, then there is a weakening of the vascular tone and starvation of the brain tissue. With a sharp, long-term and hard refusal of carbohydrates, headaches occur, increased fatigue, lower blood pressure, decreased memory, attention, fatigue (see Dyukan protein diet ).
- The appearance of edema with hard diets
Hard diets lead to a lack of protein, with such a state in the tissues begins to accumulate fluid. If, for example, to apply a diet of only vegetables, fruits, buckwheat, kefir, their absorption in the blood is impaired due to the reduction in the supply of proteins from food. As a result, swelling appears on the face and legs.
- Loss of minerals and nutrient deficiencies lead to malfunctioning of the nervous, cardiovascular, digestive, and endocrine systems.
This is only the immediate effects of emergency weight loss. In the future, with a high probability, a person will acquire a mass of unpleasant diseases, among which oncopathology is not excluded (see how cancer occurs and how to avoid oncology ). Recovery after the praised rapid methods can take more than a year!
People in 50 years and older definitely should not engage in express weight loss, since the metabolism is already undergoing age-related changes, and additional stress can end very badly.
You can not completely refuse to eat
Fasting is a terrible destructive process, fraught with irreversible consequences. For people with problems of the gastrointestinal tract, the thyroid gland, tuberculosis, increased excitability, diabetes mellitus, a complete failure of food is a direct path to death.
Full starvation leads to a decrease in fat reserves of only 20%, weight loss occurs due to the loss of water, salts and proteins - vital substances.
- All chronic diseases are exacerbated by the moment.
- A person experiences agonizing hunger, weakness, dizziness, headaches, depressed mood, reduced mental capacity and performance.
- A tongue appears on the tongue, urine begins to smell like acetone, which indicates the development of acidosis.
- Hair begins to fall out, peel off nails and skin grow dull.
- The loss of salts leads to a malfunction of the kidneys and the heart, which threatens life-threatening conditions.
- Muscles weaken, blood circulation is disturbed, vascular tone falls, and electrolyte balance changes pathologically, leading to fainting and convulsions of the extremities.
- Loss of half of the body's proteins leads to death!
And those who managed to survive should be prepared for serious diseases, including cancer, which will inevitably develop as a result of the suppression of immunity.
Other important rules
- (только на одном продукте) и питание, предполагающее полное исключение определенной группы веществ из продуктов (нутриентов). Mono-diets (only on one product) and nutrition, which supposes the complete exclusion of a certain group of substances from products (nutrients), are excluded.
- и всегда следует учитывать собственную физиологию. You can not strive for unattainable weight indicators and you should always consider your own physiology. A person with a height of 180 cm and a weight of 50 kg will have an unhealthy appearance and internal problems. Everything should be proportionate and proportionate.
- – 4 кг в месяц и не более 1 кг в неделю. Permissible weight loss is 4 kg per month and not more than 1 kg per week.
- . Be sure to combine nutrition correction and physical activity . You can not significantly reduce the calorie intake, but you can burn more calories than is consumed with food, through exercise.
- — в период борьбы с лишним весом следует обязательно контролировать состояние здоровья: сдавать анализы, измерять АД, делать кардиограмму и прислушиваться к себе, не пропуская тревожных звоночков. Control of health status - during the period of struggle with excess weight, it is necessary to control the state of health: take tests, measure blood pressure, make a cardiogram and listen to yourself, without missing alarm bells.
- — ограничив себя в калорийности, нельзя ограничивать в воде. Drinking mode - limiting yourself in calories, you can not restrict water. It is water that removes the decomposition of fat from the body. Daily intake: 2-2.5 liters per day.
- If during the period of losing weight the state of health has sharply deteriorated, physical and mental performance has fallen - you should consult a doctor.
What is not safe to do
- For a long time to use "teas for slimming or cleansing"
Since all such herbal remedies include laxatives (senna) or diuretics (birch buds, lingonberry leaves), other components are also possible. It cannot be said that they are harmful in themselves - no, but diuretics and remedies for constipation should be prescribed by a doctor according to indications, a short course. It is not safe to use such drugs for a long time. The effect of losing weight of such teas is based on the elimination of fluids from the body, along with salts, vitamins, trace elements (especially important ones like magnesium and potassium ), and long-term use of laxatives leads to the loss of electrolytes, sodium, potassium salts, which violates the water-salt balance, causes dehydration. Also, laxatives lead to intestinal “addiction” (weakening of natural peristalsis, a tendency to constipation after withdrawal).
- Be careful with fat burner supplements.
ie, to the vitamin-like substance L-carnitine and coenzyme Q 10 (ubiquinone). They should not be consumed by hypertensive patients, persons suffering from cardiac arrhythmias or in violation of liver function. These substances are present in the body and are responsible for the metabolic rate, i.e. their intake from the outside will speed up the metabolism and fats will burn faster. It is clear that if you plan to relax, lie on the couch and lose weight - it makes no sense to drink them. These substances "work" only as an extra help when a person is actively involved in sports and fitness. In addition, the effect of their application is temporary, after the end of the course and weight loss should continue to eat moderately and be sure to lead an active lifestyle, otherwise the dropped pounds will quickly return.
- Do not use with chromium polynicotinate or garcinia cambogia extract.
These are substances that increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin, i.e. carbohydrate metabolism, so the glucose in the body more actively consumed, while also reducing appetite. However, for those who have the main problem of weight gain is the abuse of fatty and carbohydrate foods, and not sweet - this will not help. "Psychological" sweet tooth, this method is also not suitable. Moreover, the use of supplements with chromium is very high risks of a sharp drop in blood sugar levels (see hypoglycemia ), when there is carbohydrate starvation of the body, it is fraught with the development of hypoglycemic coma and is deadly. Also, their use is high risk of developing diabetes and pancreatic diseases.
The first is power correction
That is what should be called a change in diet. A diet for weight loss (let's call it that) implies a certain lifestyle and a balanced diet, that is, in fact, it is not a diet. It turns out that to lose weight, it is not necessary to go half-starved or eat unappetizing food. The following principles of nutrition, coupled with physical activity will help gradually bring forms to the desired parameters, to maintain health and prevent many diseases.
- Keep a food diary. Do not be lazy to think over the daily menu in advance and calculate its caloric content.
- Do not exceed the recommended caloric intake, which is recommended specifically for your weight, height, age and activity (see formula).
- Watch for the daily calorie intake, which should be equal to the expenses of the body. Well, you can spend what is already set aside by the body as a reserve, through physical activity.
- Reduce your daily calorie intake according to your individual energy consumption. If you do not want to do this, you should increase physical activity so that the body starts to spend and break down reserve fat.
- Eat fractional, 5-6 times a day. Over time, our body is able to digest no more than 500 calories, which are spent exclusively on the needs of the body. The excess is stored in reserve.
- Stick to a specific nutritional schedule. Thus, the body will infuse a kind of biological clock, so that the digestion of food and the consumption of calories will be in the right ratio to lose 5 kg without harm to health for 6-7 weeks.
- Dine for 4 hours before bedtime - this is exactly the time during which the received food will be absorbed and the calories will be partially consumed.
- Avoid semi-finished products, especially those consisting of a mixture of carbohydrates and proteins and trans fats (ravioli, pasties, shawarma, hamburgers, pizza).
- Eat whole meat and fish. Boiled meat creates a feeling of satiety for 3.5 hours, and cutlets, sausages, nuggets - only for 2 hours.
- Arrange a fasting day 1 time in 2 weeks. The discharge is not equal hungry. But this day is just as permissible to make monocomponent, eating only fruit or vegetables, cottage cheese up to 5%, necessarily drinking at least 2 liters of water.
- Use only vegetables as a side dish - raw, steamed, boiled and stewed.
- All vegetables and fruits that can be eaten raw should be consumed in this form.
- Make your diet balanced in essential nutrients, minerals, vitamins, amino acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
- Reduce portions of food, but do it gradually. The capacity of the human stomach is 250 ml. More food only stretches the walls of the stomach and further increases the appetite. A serving of food at one time should fit into a glass.
- Exclude harmful products, which we will discuss below, gradually, so as not to fall into depression and not to stray from the right path.
- Observe the daily rate of consumption of fruits and vegetables in the amount of 750 grams.
- Use diet methods of cooking: boiling, baking without fat, stewing, steam.
- While eating, focus on the food. Feel the taste of food, chew food thoroughly (15-20 times each piece). Put in the mouth the next portion of food, just swallowed chewed.
- Eliminate the “background” snacks - while watching TV, chatting in social networks, talking on a mobile: at such moments, a large amount of food completely unnecessary to the body is absorbed uncontrollably.
- Snack properly - fruits, vegetables, cottage cheese, nuts. The optimal time for a snack is one and a half hours before meals to sit down at the table without the painful feeling of hunger. Carry a snack with you, wherever you are, to eliminate the temptation to buy non-healthy food.
- Drink water. Calculate the individual rate is simple: each kg of weight requires 30 ml of water. Water can not be replaced by other liquids: tea, coffee, chicory, store juices - it's all wrong. Coffee, for example, only increases dehydration. For people with gastrointestinal problems, water is very important - it participates in the formation of protective mucus. A glass of water should be drunk 20 minutes before a meal and another glass - 40 minutes after a meal.
- Do not replace sugar with artificial sugar substitutes (for their harm, see the diet for diabetes and what you can eat for pancreatitis ). Sugar, included in the list of products that should be abandoned altogether. But if this is not possible, replace it with brown sugar or fructose.
- Reduce the salt to 4-5 grams per day. Sodium salts alter the potassium-sodium balance and retain fluid in the tissues. Avoid hot spices.
- Replace animal fats with vegetable oils that do not raise the level of cholesterol in the blood and are completely absorbed for the needs of the body.
- Enrich the diet with calcium-containing foods : dairy, celery , sesame, etc. This is not only the prevention of osteoporosis, but a greater amount of calcitriol, a hormone that causes the body to produce energy through fat cells.
How to calculate the required calorie
Average rates of 2500 kcal for women and 3500 kcal for men have not been relevant for a long time. This is an individual indicator that depends on weight, and on height, and on age, and on the type of activity. For calculation, the Muffin-Dzheorah formula is taken, which is the most reliable for today:
Calculate expenses for the main exchange
This is something that cannot be curtailed in any way, because it is the need to maintain life (i.e. breathing, blood flow, digestion - not to be confused with energy to do the work).
- Women: 10 * weight (kg) + 6.25 * height (cm) - 5 * age - 161
- Males: 10 * weight (kg) + 6.25 * height (cm) - 5 * age + 5
Calculate the total calories
The resulting figure of the main exchange should be multiplied by a multiplying factor, which varies depending on the activity:
- Sedentary lifestyle: 1.2
- Low activity (1-3 days per week sport): 1.375
- Average activity (3-5 days per week sports): 1.55
- Высокая активность (6-7 дней в неделю спорт): 1.725
- Very high activity (active sports daily, professional high physical activity): 1.9.
For example, for a thirty-year-old woman with a weight of 70 kg and a height of 160 cm, working in an office, the total caloric content will be 1667 kcal, and not 2500 kcal in any way!
How many calories to get a day to lose weight
To lose weight in a month without harm to health, you should slightly reduce the caloric intake for a day. To do this, the total caloric value is multiplied by 0.8. Those. on average, the energy value of the diet is reduced by 20%. This is the recommended maximum! You can not reduce the caloric intake only up to the figure that is spent on the main exchange. After all, we do not lie very heavily in bed, but we move, constantly do something, and that is where the energy goes.
How to count these same calories in foods
Special calorie tables allow you to calculate the energy value of products. In the tables, which can be found on the Internet or buy a special brochure, most often affixed calories per 100 grams of weight, so it is recalculated depending on the weight of a particular portion. From here it is clear that it is necessary to acquire kitchen scales.
Also, the energy value of food varies during cooking - pay attention to it!
What is more correct - to reduce the calorie intake or increase physical activity?
The most correct option
This is the golden mean: a slight decrease in calories by 20% of the diet due to the exclusion of harmful products and an increase in physical activity, i.e. regular exercise at least 2-3 times a week (total time 3 hours). Estimated weight loss: 700-900 grams per week.
You can not reduce the calculated energy value of the diet, but at the same time increase physical activity (buy a subscription to a fitness club, do bodyflex, Pilates, purchase a multi-functional simulator). In this case, weight loss will be softer (weight loss of about 500 grams per week).
This is a decrease in calories by 20% without increasing physical activity. In this case, the result on the scales is also guaranteed, but the external result of losing weight will not always please. A thinner and slim man is a different concept. The subcutaneous fat just gone from the body is not equal to slender and taut forms. Muscles should still be given a load in order not only to lose weight, but also to really build up, tighten the skin, tone the muscles. Of course, there are contraindications to active sports, so any type of physical activity should be agreed with the doctor.
Prohibited and permitted products
We note immediately that products classified as forbidden can be excluded without doubt by anyone who wants to be healthy, and not only slim. They do not carry any benefit to the body! Those beneficial substances that are found in a meager amount in a harmful food are more than replaced by normal food.
Do not worry about food addictions. Gradually, the body will rebuild, and what previously seemed to you delicious, will no longer cause active salivation. A bonus will be - the resulting prettier appearance, healthy skin, nails, hair, an internal surge of strength, a slender figure, good health, and will keep from disruption and return back. Table - replacement of junk food with useful.
|Fats: margarine, butter, fat, lard||Vegetable oils, especially olive cold pressed how to choose .|
|Meat products: pates, liver sausages, smoked sausages, sausages, ham, canned food. By-products: kidneys, liver, heart, poultry skin||Eggs|
|Fatty Meat: Lamb, Pork||Lean beef, chicken breast, rabbit, turkey, veal|
|Fatty fish: halibut, salmon, mackerel, carp||Low-fat fish: river trout, cod, pink salmon, hake, pollack, seafood, pike perch, pike|
|Fat cheese (over 30%)||Cheese with fat content up to 30%|
|Fat milk (more than 2%)||Skimmed or low-fat milk (1-1.5%)|
|Fat dairy products (more than 4-5%), cream, sour cream, mayonnaise, ice cream||Cottage cheese (fat-free or with fat content up to 4%), ryazhenka, yogurt, kefir (low-fat or 1-2%)|
|Liquid sweet dairy: yoghurts, sweet curds, pastes, puddings||Low Fat and Savory Yoghurts|
|Confectionery: cakes, biscuits, sweet bread, cakes||Nuts ( pine not peeled , walnut), sesame, pumpkin seeds|
|Black Yeast Bread||Unleavened bran bread, rye bread|
|Sugar||In exceptional cases, fructose, brown sugar (not more than 1 tsp. Per cup)|
|Sweets: candy, candy bars, chocolate, honey, jam, jam||Homemade ice cream made from fruit juice, desserts made from curd and fruit, homemade marmalade without sugar, dark bitter chocolate|
|High-carb cereals: white rice, semolina, millet||Porridge (good ), buckwheat, pearl barley, barley porridge, brown rice|
|Pasta from soft wheat varieties||Pasta from durum cereal, pasta from a mixture of rye and wheat flour|
|Potatoes, canned vegetables||Cucumbers, peppers, celery, tomatoes, carrots, cabbage, radishes, beets, greens, lettuce, zucchini, eggplants, green beans, spinach, sorrel, young green peas, mushrooms, avocados|
|Bananas, dates, canned fruits||Apples, pears, berries, pineapple, apricots, peaches, citrus|
|Fast food, ready snacks: chips, snacks, salted nuts, sunflower seeds.||Dried fruits (with the exception of candied candied fruit)|
|Sweet carbonated drinks: lemonade, cola, etc., alcohol||Fruit tea, compote, freshly squeezed juices|
How to lose weight - menu 1 day
- Breakfast is 8.00. - Oatmeal, filled with boiling water and infused for 20 minutes. After infusion, add fresh berries or ground fruits to them. Green tea.
- Snack 10.00. - 50 grams of pine nuts
- Lunch 12.00 - cottage cheese 5% with fruit
- Lunch 14.00 - boiled chicken breast (200 gr), steamed vegetables.
- Snack 16.00. - 1 apple and 1 pear
- Dinner 18.00 - vegetable salad, seasoned with ryazhenka, with cereal bran bread. Fish fillet 100 gr
- Second dinner 19.00. Fresh fresh. Low fat yogurt with fruit.
Before main meals and after them (in 20 minutes and in 40 minutes) drink 1 glass of clear water (see which water is better to drink ).
The second is physical activity
It is very difficult for an untrained person to suddenly begin to actively engage in sports, to pay due attention to this.
- – приобрести абонемент в фитнесс-клуб, на пилатес, бодифлекс. It is more effective, though more expensive , to purchase a subscription to a fitness club, for Pilates, body flex. This guarantees quality training with proper duration and efficiency. Under the control of a coach, it will be difficult to shirk and indulge.
- , приобрести или взять на прокат тренажер. You can master the exercises yourself , buy or hire a simulator. The main thing is not to abandon what has been started, to withstand the load and not give up in moments of weakness. It is enough to play sports 3 times a week for 40-60 minutes.
- из 10 дыхательно-позовых упражнений на задержке дыхания — Бодифлекс, он требует лишь 15 минут в день, не требует особой физической подготовки и услуг тренера (научится можно самой), этот комплекс упражнений идеален для домохозяек и женщин после беременности, уменьшается объем желудка и происходит массаж внутренних органов. An excellent effective homemade complex of 10 breathing exercises for breathing is Bodyflex, it takes only 15 minutes a day, does not require special physical training and the services of a trainer (you can learn it yourself), this set of exercises is ideal for housewives and women after pregnancy, decreases the volume of the stomach and massage of the internal organs.
- — старайтесь подниматься по лестнице пешком, а не пользоваться лифтом, чаще гуляйте быстрым шагом или делайте пробежки в парке, заставляйте себя лишний раз убраться в квартире или сбегать вынести мусор — всё пойдет «в зачет»! It is important to struggle with your own laziness - try to walk up the stairs instead of using the elevator, walk in brisk steps more often, or do jogging in the park, force yourself to clean up the apartment once again or run out the garbage - everything will go to credit
- select specific days and times for classes;
- an hour before class you need to eat;
- during classes drink clear water a little (1-2 sips at a time);
- breathe properly: inhale through the nose, exhale through the mouth;
- do 10-15 repetitions and 2-3 approaches of each exercise;
- Do not eat for at least an hour after class.
Below we give 15 effective and simple exercises that burn fat all over the body well and tone up the muscles. You can do all the above exercises in the complex, and you can select the preferred and work on the most problematic areas:
So, to lose weight without harm at home is possible! To do this, just eat right and be an active person. Having achieved the desired weight, and most importantly - internal harmony, it is important to maintain this state and adhere to the lifestyle to which the body will get used during weight loss, because it is healthy and healthy!