Excess weight is wrong to call only aesthetic problem. No doctor advises you to lose weight only for the purpose of external beauty, but will strongly recommend bringing the weight back to normal for the prevention of the prevailing majority of existing diseases, in which the extra kilo is a serious risk factor.
There are a lot of weight loss techniques, as they say, for every taste that can be found on the net, brochures, hear in the human rumor: diet, exercise, slimming preparations, various teas and coffee, psycho training. Some of the "super-methods" promise to lose weight in a week, but at what cost?
That after a rapid loss of excess kilos not to be on a hospital bed or not to fall ill with a dangerous disease (against the background of a decrease in immunity), this issue should be approached reasonably. The decision to lose weight should be weighed, thought out and coordinated with the doctor.
It is necessary to consult a doctor, since in many diseases (diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, etc.) special recommendations are required. In this article, we will tell you how to lose weight properly without harm to the health of a relatively healthy person (without serious health problems), how not to return to the previous weight, that is, how not to hurt yourself in pursuit of harmony.
The basic rules of safe weight loss
This process should be prepared both morally and physically - gradually increase physical activity, walk more. The right motivation for people with excess weight is the preservation of health and the prolongation of life. But the desire for a dubious harmonious ideal can result in a deep depression, because after losing weight, we still will not be younger for 10 years.
Weight loss should be gradual, best of all - within six months or more
Lose weight quickly and without harm to health is simply impossible. Rapid weight loss (more than 5 kg per month) is equivalent to shock therapy. Quickly acquired harmony, alas, will not bring the joy that was expected in anticipation of this event, since the whole body will be in a state of stress and imbalance:
- There is a big load on the liver
Since the breakdown of fat tissue is accompanied by the release of toxins stored in fats and the products of their decay. Disposal of harmful substances occurs in the liver, which cleanses the blood and removes toxins from the body. With rapid weight loss the liver is not able to cope with such a load, which leads to poisoning the body;
- Loss of mass leads to a change in internal equilibrium and metabolic rate
Losing weight is accompanied by the splitting of fats stored by the body. If this happens swiftly, the body begins to slow down the metabolism, including thus a protective reaction. This creates a vicious circle - as soon as a person ceases to lose weight, the body after such a rapid loss of stored fat begins to put off stocks even with a normal diet, trying to compensate for what was gone. That's why sharply thinner people also get better after losing weight;
Outwardly it looks like flabby, sometimes saggy skin, which does not exactly adorn the body, and even more so the face. The sagging skin loses its elasticity, and it is more difficult for it to return to its original state (see how to remove flabby, sagging skin );
- Rigid diets lead to vitamin deficiency
The loss of vitamins and their intake of food often leads to hypovitaminosis and vitamin deficiency for some vitamins. For example, the rejection of fat leads to a violation of the assimilation of vitamin D (fat-soluble, is absorbed only if there is fat in the diet). Deficiency of vitamins affects the skin condition (dryness, peeling), hair (foliation, loss), nails (fragility, foliation), on the condition of teeth and gums, and generally lowers immunity;
- Sharp weight loss reduces immunity
Against the background of general stress and lack of calories, immunity suffers, which in turn is fraught with various infections (tuberculosis, frequent acute respiratory infections, herpes, etc.), activation of its own conditionally pathogenic flora, exacerbation of chronic diseases;
- Deterioration of memory, lowering of arterial pressure, loss of vital energy
If, for example, a low-carbohydrate diet is used, when not only fast, simple carbohydrates (sweet, floury) are excluded but also slow, complex (cereals, grain bread, roots, macaroni from durum wheat) - which is an energy fuel for the brain, then there is a weakening of the vascular tone and starvation of the brain tissue. With a sharp, prolonged and hard refusal of carbohydrates, headaches, fatigue, lowering blood pressure, lowering memory, attention, and loss of strength occur (see Ducane albumin diet ).
- The appearance of swelling with hard diets
Rigid diets lead to a lack of protein, with such a state in the tissues begins to accumulate liquid. If, for example, to apply a diet of only vegetables, fruits, buckwheat, kefir, due to a reduction in the intake of protein from food, their absorption to the blood is impaired. As a result, edema appears on the face and legs.
- Loss of minerals and a lack of nutrients leads to malfunctions in the work of the nervous, cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine systems.
This is only the immediate consequences of emergency weight loss. In the future, with a high probability, a person will get a lot of unpleasant diseases, including oncology (see how cancer develops and how to avoid oncology ). Recovery after the vaunted express methods may take more than a year!
People in 50 years and older definitely should not deal with express weight loss, because the metabolism is already undergoing age-related changes, and additional stress can end very badly.
You can not completely refuse to eat
Fasting is a terrible destructive process, fraught with irreversible consequences. For people with problems of the gastrointestinal tract, thyroid gland, tuberculosis, increased excitability, diabetes mellitus, total refusal of food is a direct way to death.
Complete starvation leads to a reduction in fat reserves by as little as 20%, mass loss occurs due to loss of water, salts and proteins - vital substances.
- All chronic diseases become aggravated by the moment.
- A person experiences a painful hunger, weakness, dizziness, headaches, a depressed mood, mental capacities and efficiency are reduced.
- A plaque appears on the tongue, urine begins to smell of acetone, which indicates the development of acidosis.
- Hair begins to fall out, the nails will fade and the skin will fade.
- Loss of salts leads to a malfunction in the kidneys and the heart, which threatens life-threatening conditions.
- The muscles weakened, blood circulation was disrupted, the tone of the vessels dropped and the electrolyte balance changed pathologically, which leads to fainting and limb spasms.
- The loss of half of the body's proteins leads to death!
And those who managed to survive, should prepare for serious diseases, including cancer, which will inevitably develop due to the suppression of immunity.
Other Important Rules
- (только на одном продукте) и питание, предполагающее полное исключение определенной группы веществ из продуктов (нутриентов). Excluded are mono-diets (only on one product) and nutrition, which implies the complete exclusion of a certain group of substances from products (nutrients).
- и всегда следует учитывать собственную физиологию. You can not strive for unattainable weight indicators and you should always consider your own physiology. A person with a height of 180 cm and a weight of 50 kg will have an unhealthy appearance and internal problems. Everything must be proportionate and commensurate.
- – 4 кг в месяц и не более 1 кг в неделю. Admissible weight loss is 4 kg per month and not more than 1 kg per week.
- . It is necessary to combine the correction of nutrition and physical activity . You can not significantly reduce the calorie intake, but you can burn more calories than consumed with food, through exercise.
- — в период борьбы с лишним весом следует обязательно контролировать состояние здоровья: сдавать анализы, измерять АД, делать кардиограмму и прислушиваться к себе, не пропуская тревожных звоночков. Health monitoring - during the fight against excess weight, you must always monitor your health: take tests, measure blood pressure, do a cardiogram and listen to yourself, without missing alarming bells.
- — ограничив себя в калорийности, нельзя ограничивать в воде. Drinking regime - by limiting yourself to caloric content, you can not limit it in water. It is the water that removes the products of the decomposition of fats from the body. Daily rate: 2-2.5 liters per day.
- If during the period of weight loss the health condition has sharply worsened, physical and mental working capacity has fallen - it is necessary to consult a doctor.
What to do is not safe
- For a long time to use "teas for weight loss or cleansing"
since all such phytopreparations include laxatives (senna) or diuretics (birch buds, cranberry leaf), and possibly other components. It can not be said that they are in themselves harmful - no, but diuretics and constipation should be prescribed by a doctor according to the testimony, short course. It is not safe to use such drugs for a long time. The effect of losing weight of such teas is based on the removal of fluid from the body, along with salts, vitamins, microelements (especially important such as magnesium and potassium ), and prolonged use of laxatives leads to loss of electrolytes, sodium salts, potassium, which violates the water-salt balance, causes dehydration. Also laxatives lead to "addictive" intestines (weakening of natural peristalsis, propensity to constipation after cancellation).
- Caution should be given to additives such as "fat burners"
ie to the vitamin-like substance of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q 10 (ubiquinone). They can not be used by hypertensives, persons suffering from cardiac arrhythmias or with a violation of liver function. These substances are present in the body and are responsible for the metabolic rate, i.e. their intake from the outside will speed up the metabolism and fats will burn faster. It is clear that if you plan to rest, lie on the couch and lose weight - there is no sense in drinking them. These substances "work" only as an additional help, when a person is actively engaged in sports, fitness. In addition, the effect of their application is temporary, after the end of the course and losing weight should continue to eat moderately and be sure to lead an active lifestyle, otherwise the dropped kilograms will quickly return.
- Do not use drugs with chrome polinicotinate or Garcinia extract Cambodian
These are substances that increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin, i.e. carbohydrate metabolism, so glucose in the body is more actively consumed, and appetite also decreases. However, those who have the main problem of weight gain is the abuse of fatty and carbohydrate products, rather than sweet - it does not help. "Psychological" sweet tooth this method also does not fit. Moreover, when using additives with chromium, the risks of a sharp drop in blood sugar (see hypoglycemia ) are very high, when carbohydrate starvation of the body occurs, this is fraught with the development of hypoglycemic coma and is deadly dangerous. Also, when they are used, the risks of developing diabetes and pancreatic diseases are high.
The first is power correction
This is how it should be called a change in the diet. Diet for weight loss (we call it so) implies a certain lifestyle and a balanced diet, that is, in fact, is not a diet. It turns out that to lose weight, it is not necessary to walk half-starved or eat tasteless food. The following principles of nutrition, together with physical activity, will help gradually bring the forms into the desired parameters, to preserve health and prevent many diseases.
- Get a food diary. Do not be lazy in advance to think through the daily menu and calculate its calorie content.
- Do not exceed the recommended caloric intake, which is recommended for your weight, height, age and activity (see formula).
- Watch for the caloric content of the daily ration, which should be equal to the expenses of the body. Well, to spend what has already been postponed by the body in reserve, you can by physical activity.
- Reduce the daily calorie intake according to your individual energy expenditure. If you do not want to do this, you should increase physical activity, so that the body begins to spend and break down the reserve fat.
- Eat a little, 5-6 times a day. At a time, our body can not digest more than 500 calories, which are spent purely on the needs of the body. Surplus is put aside for storage.
- Adhere to a specific meal schedule. Thus, the body tends to maintain its own biological clock, so digesting food and consuming the calories consumed will occur in the right proportion to lose weight by 5 kg without harm to health for 6-7 weeks.
- Dine 4 hours before bedtime - this is just the time for which the food you eat is absorbed and the kcal is partially consumed.
- Give up semi-finished products, especially those consisting of a mixture of carbohydrates and proteins and trans fats (pelmeni, chebureks, shaurma, hamburgers, pizza).
- Eat whole meat and fish. Boiled meat creates a feeling of satiety for 3.5 hours, and cutlets, sausages, nuggets - only for 2 hours.
- Arrange a fasting day 1 time in 2 weeks. Unloading is not equally hungry. But this day is just permissible to make monocomponent, eating only fruits or vegetables, curd to 5%, be sure to drink at least 2 liters of water.
- Use as side dishes only vegetables - raw, steam, boiled and stewed.
- All vegetables and fruits, which can be eaten raw, should be consumed in this form.
- Make a diet balanced on the basic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, amino acids and fatty acids of the polyunsaturated series.
- Reduce portions of food, but do it gradually. The capacity of the human stomach is 250 ml. More food only stretches the walls of the stomach and increases the appetite in the future. A portion of food for one meal should fit in a glass.
- Exclude harmful products, which we'll talk about below, gradually, so as not to fall into depression and not break off the right path.
- Observe the daily intake of vegetables and fruits in the amount of 750 gr.
- Use dietary methods of cooking: boiling, baking without fats, stewing, steam method.
- When you eat, focus on food. Feel the taste of products, thoroughly chew food (15-20 times each piece). Put in your mouth another portion of food, just swallow the chewed.
- Eliminate "background" snacks - while watching TV, social networking, talking on the mobile: at such times, a large amount of food that is absolutely unnecessary to the body is absorbed uncontrollably.
- Have a bite right - with fruits, vegetables, cottage cheese, nuts. The optimal time for a snack is one and a half hours before a meal, to sit at the table without a painful sense of hunger. Take a snack with you wherever you are to exclude the temptation to buy not useful food.
- Drink water. Calculate the individual rate is simple: for each kg of weight requires 30 ml of water. Water can not be replaced with other liquids: tea, coffee, chicory, shop juices - it's all wrong. Coffee, for example, only enhances dehydration. For people with gastrointestinal problems, water is very important - it participates in the formation of protective mucus. A glass of water should be drunk 20 minutes before meals and another glass - 40 minutes after eating.
- Do not substitute sugar for artificial sweeteners (for their harm see diet in diabetes and what can be eaten with pancreatitis ). Sugar, is included in the list of products, which should be discarded altogether. But if this is not possible, replace it with brown sugar or fructose.
- Reduce the salt to 4-5 grams per day. Sodium salts change the potassium-sodium balance and retard fluid in the tissues. Give up sharp spices.
- Replace animal fats with vegetable oils, which do not increase the level of cholesterol in the blood and are completely absorbed for the needs of the body.
- Enrich the diet with products containing calcium : dairy, celery , sesame, etc. This is not only the prevention of osteoporosis, but more calcitriol, a hormone that causes the body to produce energy from fat cells.
How to calculate the required caloric value
Average norms in 2500 kcal for women and 3500 kcal for men are not relevant for a long time. This is an individual indicator, depending on weight, and on growth, and on age, and on the type of activity. For calculation, the Maffin-Geor formula is used, which is the most reliable for today:
We calculate the expenditure on the basic exchange
This is something that can not be cut in any way, for it is the needs for maintaining vital activity (ie, breathing, blood flow, digestion - not to be confused with energy to do the work).
- Women: 10 * weight (kg) + 6.25 * height (cm) - 5 * age - 161
- Men: 10 * weight (kg) + 6.25 * height (cm) - 5 * age + 5
We calculate the total caloric value
The resulting figure of the basic exchange should be multiplied by the increasing coefficient, which varies depending on the activity:
- Sedentary life: 1.2
- Small activity (1-3 days a week sport): 1.375
- Average activity (3-5 days per week sport): 1.55
- Высокая активность (6-7 дней в неделю спорт): 1.725
- Very high activity (active sports daily, professional high physical activity): 1.9.
For example, for a 30-year-old woman with a weight of 70 kg and a height of 160 cm, working in the office, the total caloric value will be 1,667 kcal, and not 2500 kcal!
How many calories are received per day to lose weight
To lose weight in a month without harm to health, you should slightly reduce the caloric content of the diet for a day. To do this, the total caloric value is multiplied by 0.8. Those. on average, the energy value of the diet is reduced by 20%. This is the recommended maximum! You can not reduce the caloric intake of food only to the figure that is spent on basic metabolism. After all, we do not lie awkward in bed, but move, we constantly do something, and energy goes away.
How to calculate these calories in foods
Special tables of caloric content make it possible to calculate the energy value of products. In tables, which can be found on the Internet or buy a special brochure, caloric content is most often indicated per 100 g of weight, so it is recalculated according to the weight of a particular serving. Hence it is clear that you have to get kitchen scales.
Also, the energy value of products changes during cooking - pay attention to it!
What is more correct - to reduce the caloric content of the diet or increase physical activity?
The most correct option
This is the golden mean: a slight decrease in calorie content by 20% of the diet due to the exclusion of harmful products and an increase in physical activity, i.e. regular sports activities at least 2-3 times a week (a total time of 3 hours). Estimated weight loss: 700-900 g per week.
The second option
You can not reduce the calculated energy value of the diet, but at the same time increase physical activity (buy a subscription to a fitness club, exercise bodyfoot, Pilates, buy a multifunctional simulator). In this case, weight loss will be more mild (weight loss of about 500 grams per week).
The third option
This decrease in calorie content by 20% without increasing physical activity. In this case, the result on the scales is also guaranteed, but the external result of weight loss will not always be happy. Slim and slender people are different concepts. Just leaving the body of subcutaneous fat is not equal to slim and fit shapes. Muscles should still be given a load in order not just to lose weight, but also to really build up, tighten the skin, tone muscles. Of course, there are contraindications to active sports, so any kind of physical training should be agreed with the doctor.
Prohibited and Authorized Products
Let's note at once, that the products referred to group forbidden, it is possible without doubt to exclude all who wishes to be healthy, and not only harmonous. They do not bring any benefit to the body! Those useful substances, which in a meager amount are contained in harmful food, are more than replaced by normal food.
Do not worry about food addiction. Gradually the body will be rebuilt, and what previously seemed delicious to you will no longer cause active salivation. And the bonus will be - the received prettier appearance, healthy skin, nails, hair, inner burst of strength, slim figure, strong health, and will keep from disruption and return back. Table - replacement of harmful food by useful.
|Fats: margarine, butter, fat, lard||Vegetable oils, especially olive cold pressed how to choose .|
|Meat products: pates, liver sausages, smoked sausages, sausages, ham, canned food. By-products: kidney, liver, heart, poultry skin||Eggs|
|Fatty meat: lamb, pork||Postal beef, chicken breasts, rabbit, turkey, veal|
|Fatty fish: halibut, salmon, mackerel, carp||Low-fat fish: river trout, cod, pink salmon, hake, pollock, seafood, pike perch, pike|
|Fat cheese (more than 30%)||Cheese with fat content up to 30%|
|Fat milk (more than 2%)||Low-fat or low-fat milk (1-1.5%)|
|Fat dairy products (more than 4-5%), cream, sour cream, mayonnaise, ice cream||Cottage cheese (low-fat or fat content up to 4%), fermented, curdled, yogurt (skim or 1-2%)|
|Liquid sweet dairy: yogurt, sweet curd, pasta, puddings||Low-fat and unsweetened yogurts|
|Confectionery: pies, biscuits, bread, cakes||Nuts ( cedar not peeled , walnuts), sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds|
|Black yeast bread||Bezdorozhevoy bran bread, rye bread|
|Sugar||In exceptional cases, fructose, brown sugar (not more than 1 tsp per cup)|
|Sweets: sweets, bars, chocolate, honey, jam, jam||Homemade ice-cream from fruit juice, desserts from cottage cheese and fruit, homemade jelly without sugar, black bitter chocolate|
|High-carbohydrate cereals: white rice, semolina, millet||Oatmeal (benefit ), buckwheat, pearl barley, barley porridge, brown rice|
|Macaroni from soft wheat varieties||Macaroni from hard varieties of cereal, pasta from a mixture of rye and wheat flour|
|Potatoes, canned vegetables||Cucumbers, peppers, celery, tomatoes, carrots, cabbage, radishes, beets, greens, leaf salad, zucchini, eggplant, green beans, spinach, sorrel, young green peas, mushrooms, avocado|
|Bananas, dates, canned fruits||Apples, pears, berries, pineapple, apricots, peaches, citrus fruits|
|Fast food, ready harmful snacks: chips, snacks, salted nuts, sunflower seeds.||Dried fruits (with the exception of candied candied fruits)|
|Sweet carbonated drinks: lemonades, cola, etc., alcohol||Fruit tea, compote, freshly squeezed juice|
How to lose weight - 1 day menu
- Breakfast 8.00. - Oat flakes filled with boiling water and infused 20 min. After it is insisted, add fresh berries or ground fruits to them. Green tea.
- Snack 10.00. - 50 gr of pine nuts
- Afternoon snack 12.00 - 5% cottage cheese with fruit
- Lunch 14.00 - chicken breast boiled (200 g), vegetables for a couple.
- Snack 16.00. - 1 apple and 1 pear
- Dinner 18.00 - vegetable salad, seasoned with ryazhenka, with grain bran bread. Fish fillet 100 gr
- Second dinner is at 19.00. Fresh fresh. Low fat yogurt with fruit.
Before and after the main meals (20 minutes and 40 minutes), drink 1 glass of clean water (see which water to drink better ).
The second is physical activity
It is very difficult for an untrained person to suddenly start actively engaging in sports, paying due attention to this.
- – приобрести абонемент в фитнесс-клуб, на пилатес, бодифлекс. It is more effective, though more expensive , to purchase a subscription to a fitness club, to pilates, to a bodyflex. This guarantees quality training with the proper duration and efficiency. Under the control of the coach it will be difficult to shirk and give yourself indulgences.
- , приобрести или взять на прокат тренажер. You can learn the exercises yourself , buy or rent a simulator. The main thing is not to throw the started, to withstand the load and not give up in moments of weakness. It is enough to do sports 3 times a week for 40-60 minutes.
- из 10 дыхательно-позовых упражнений на задержке дыхания — Бодифлекс, он требует лишь 15 минут в день, не требует особой физической подготовки и услуг тренера (научится можно самой), этот комплекс упражнений идеален для домохозяек и женщин после беременности, уменьшается объем желудка и происходит массаж внутренних органов. Excellent effective home complex of 10 breathing exercises on breath holding - Bodyflex, it only takes 15 minutes a day, does not require special physical training and the services of a coach (you can learn yourself), this set of exercises is ideal for housewives and women after pregnancy, decreases volume of the stomach and massage of the internal organs.
- — старайтесь подниматься по лестнице пешком, а не пользоваться лифтом, чаще гуляйте быстрым шагом или делайте пробежки в парке, заставляйте себя лишний раз убраться в квартире или сбегать вынести мусор — всё пойдет «в зачет»! It is important to struggle with your laziness - try to climb the stairs on foot, rather than use the elevator, walk more often with a quick step or run in the park, force yourself to clean up again in the apartment or run away to take out the garbage - everything will go "in credit"!
- select certain days and specific times for classes;
- one hour before classes you need to eat;
- during classes drink clean water a little (1-2 sips at a time);
- breathe properly: inhale through the nose, exhale through the mouth;
- do 10-15 repetitions and 2-3 sets of each exercise;
- do not eat for at least an hour after classes.
Below we give 15 effective and simple exercises that burn fat well on the whole body and tonify the muscles. You can do all the exercises in the complex, but you can select the preferred ones and work on the most problematic areas:
So, to lose weight without harm at home is possible! To do this, you just need to eat right and be an active person. Having achieved the desired weight, and most importantly - inner harmony, it is important to maintain this state and adhere to the lifestyle that the body will get used to when losing weight, because it is the right and healthy!