Most of the inhabitants are of the opinion that there is no disease worse than cancer. Any doctor is ready to challenge this idea, but public opinion is conservative.
And in spite of the fact that oncology takes the honorable third place among the causes of disability and death, people will consider for a very long time that there is no illness worse, and to seek ways how to avoid oncology.
It is known that any disease is cheaper and easier to prevent than treat, and cancer is no exception. Yes, and the treatment itself, started in the early stage of the disease at times more effective than in neglected cases.
The basic postulates that will not die of cancer:
- Reducing the impact on the body of carcinogens. Any person, removing from his life, at least some of the oncogenic factors, is able to reduce the risk of cancer pathology by at least 3 times.
- The winged phrase - "all diseases from nerves" for oncology is no exception. Stress is a trigger mechanism for the active growth of cancer cells. So avoid nervous shocks, learn to deal with stress - meditation, yoga, positive attitude to what is happening, the method of "Key" and other psychological training and attitudes.
- Early diagnosis and early treatment. Modern oncology believes that cancer, detected at the initial stage, can be cured in more than 90% of cases.
Mechanism of tumor development
Cancer in its development goes through three stages:
Cell mutation origin - initiation
In the process of vital activity, the cells of our tissues are constantly divided, replacing the deceased or the worn out. At division, genetic errors (mutations), "cellular marriage" can arise. The mutation leads to a permanent change in the genes of the cell, affecting its DNA. Such cells do not turn into normal, but begin to uncontrollably share (in the presence of predisposing factors), forming a cancerous tumor. The causes of mutations are the following:
- Internal: genetic abnormalities, hormonal failures, etc.
- External: radiation, smoking, heavy metals, etc.
The World Health Organization (WHO) believes that 90% of oncological diseases occur due to external causes. Factors of external or internal environment, the impact of which can cause cancer and promote tumor growth are called - CARCINOGENS.
The entire stage of nucleation of such cells can take several minutes - this is the time of absorption of the carcinogen into the blood, its delivery to the cells, attachment to the DNA and transition to the active substance. The process ends when the formation of new daughter cells with a changed genetic structure takes place - that's it!
And this is irreversible (with rare exceptions), see cell mutations occur 20 years before lung cancer . But, on this process can be suspended until there are favorable conditions for the further growth of the colony of cancer cells, since the immune system does not sleep and struggles with such mutated cells. That is, if immunodeficiency is weakened-a powerful stress, (most often a loss of loved ones), a serious infectious disease, and also with hormonal failure, after trauma (see the connection of trauma and oncology ), etc. - the body can not cope with their growth , then the 2nd stage begins.
The presence of favorable conditions for the growth of mutating cells - promotion
This is a much longer period (years, even decades) when newly emerged mutated cells predisposed to cancer are ready to multiply to a noticeable cancerous tumor. It is this stage that can be reversible, because everything depends on whether the cancer cells are provided with the necessary conditions for growth. There are quite a few different versions and theories of the causes of cancer, among which is the relationship between the growth of mutated cells and human nutrition.
For example, the authors T. Campbell, C. Campbell in the book "The Chinese study, the results of the largest study of the relationship between nutrition and health," give the results of 35 years of research on the connection of oncology and the predominance of protein foods in the diet. They argue that the presence of more than 20% of animal proteins (meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products) in the daytime diet promotes the intensive growth of cancer cells, and vice versa, the presence in the daily ration of antistimulators (vegetable food without thermal, cooking) even stops their growth.
According to this theory, one should be very careful with various fashionable protein diets today. The food should be full, with an abundance of vegetables and fruits. If a person with 0-1 stage of oncology (not knowing about this) "sits down" on a protein diet (for example, in order to lose weight), he essentially feeds cancer cells.
Development and growth - progression
The third stage is the progressive growth of a group of formed cancer cells, the conquest of neighboring and distant tissues, that is, the development of metastases. This process is irreversible, but it is also possible to slow it down.
Causes of carcinogenesis
Science knows thousands of physical, chemical and biological factors capable of causing cellular mutations. However, carcinogens can be considered only those whose action is RELATED associated with the appearance of tumors. This reliability should be ensured by clinical, epidemiological and other studies. Therefore, there is the concept of "potential carcinogen," this is some factor, the effect of which can theoretically increase the risk of developing cancer, but its role in carcinogenesis has not been studied or proven.
To this group of carcinogens are mainly different kinds of radiation.
Scientists have known for a long time that radiation can cause genetic mutations (the Nobel Prize of 1946, Joseph Möller), but convincing evidence of the role of radiation in the development of tumors was obtained after studying the victims of the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The main sources of ionizing radiation for modern man are as follows.
- The natural radioactive background is 75%
- Medical manipulations - 20%
- Other - 5%. Among other things, radionuclides appear in the environment as a result of ground tests of nuclear weapons in the middle of the 20th century, as well as those that fell into it after the technogenic catastrophes in Chernobyl and Fukushima.
To influence the natural radioactive background is useless. Modern science does not know whether a person can live without radiation at all. So do not trust people who advise to reduce the concentration of radon in the house (50% of the natural background) or to protect oneself from cosmic rays.
Another thing is X-ray research, conducted for medical purposes.
In the USSR, fluorography of the lungs (for detection of tuberculosis) was necessary to be performed once in 3 years. In most CIS countries, this survey is required to be conducted annually. Such a measure reduced the spread of tuberculosis, but how did it affect the overall oncological morbidity? There probably is no answer, because nobody has been working on this issue.
Also, among ordinary people, computer tomography is very popular. At the insistence of the patient, they do it to anyone who does not need it. However, most people forget that CT is also an X-ray study, only more technological. The dose of radiation at CT exceeds the usual X-ray image by 5-10 times (see CT in childhood increases the risk of oncology in the future ). We do not in any way call for the abandonment of x-ray studies. Just approaching their appointment should be very weighed.
However, there are still circumstances of force majeure, such as:
- living in premises constructed of fountain materials or finished
- life under high voltage lines
- submarine service
- work as a radiologist, etc.
It is believed that the fashion for tanning introduced in the middle of the twentieth century Coco Chanel. However, even in the XIX century, scientists knew that the constant exposure to sunlight aging the skin. Not just because the villagers look older than their urban peers. They are more in the sun.
Ultraviolet causes skin cancer, this is a proven fact (WHO report for 1994). But the ultraviolet is especially dangerous - the solarium. In 2003, WHO published a report on concerns about tanning beds and about the irresponsibility of manufacturers of these devices. Solariums are prohibited for persons under the age of 18 in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the USA, and in Australia and Brazil they are banned completely. So a bronze tan is probably beautiful, but not at all useful.
Local irritant effect
Chronic traumatization of the skin and mucous membranes can cause the development of the tumor. Substandard dentures can cause lip cancer, and permanent rubbing of clothes about the birthmark is melanoma. Not every birthmark becomes cancer. But if she is in a zone of increased traumatic danger (on the neck - the friction of the collar, on the face of men - the injury when shaving, etc.), it is worth considering removing it.
Irritation can also be thermal and chemical. Fans of very hot food put themselves at risk for cancer of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus. The alcohol has an annoying effect, so people who prefer strong strong drinks, as well as alcohol, risk the occurrence of stomach cancer.
Household electromagnetic radiation
We are talking about the emission of cellular phones, microwave ovens and Wi-Fi routers.
WHO officially classified cell phones as potential carcinogens. Information on carcinogenicity of UHF is only theoretical, and there is no information about the influence of Wi-Fi on tumor growth of information. Quite the contrary, studies demonstrating the safety of these devices are more than fabrications about their harm.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) separates substances used in the home and in production, for their carcinogenicity to the following groups (information is available as of 2004):
- – 82 вещества. Significantly carcinogenic - 82 substances. Chemical agents of carcinogenicity are not in doubt.
- – 65 веществ. Probably carcinogenic - 65 substances. Chemical agents of carcinogenicity have a very high degree of evidence.
– 255 веществ. Perhaps carcinogenic - 255 substances. Chemical agents whose carcinogenicity is possible, but questioned.
- – 475 веществ. Probably not carcinogenic - 475 substances. There is no evidence of carcinogenicity of these substances.
- — химические агенты, доказано не вызывающие рак. Reliably non - carcinogenic - chemical agents, proven to not cause cancer. While in this group only one substance - caprolactam.
We will discuss the most important chemicals that cause tumors.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
This is a vast group of chemicals that are formed when incomplete combustion of organic products. Contained in tobacco smoke, car exhausts and thermal power plants, stove and other soot, are formed when frying food and heat treating the oil.
Nitrates, nitrites, nitroso compounds
This is a by-product of modern agrochemistry. Nitrates in themselves are completely harmless, but they can turn into nitroso compounds, which in turn are very carcinogenic, with the passage of time, as well as as a result of metabolism in the human body.
These are chlorine-containing compounds, which are waste products of chemical and oil refineries. They can be a part of transformer oils, pesticides and herbicides. May occur when burning household rubbish, in particular plastic bottles or polyethylene packaging. Dioxins are extremely resistant to destruction, so they can accumulate in the environment and the human body, especially the "dicot" loves fatty tissue. Minimize the ingestion of dioxins in food is possible if:
- Do not freeze food, water in plastic bottles - so toxins easily penetrate into water and products
- Do not heat foods in plastic containers in a microwave oven, it is better to use tempered glass or ceramic containers
- Do not cover food with a plastic wrap when heated in a microwave oven, it is better to cover with a tissue paper.
Metals with a density greater than that of iron. In the periodic table there are about 40 of them, but for humans the most dangerous are mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic. In the environment, these substances come from waste of mining, steel, and chemical industries, some heavy metals are contained in tobacco smoke and car exhausts.
This is the general name for a group of fine-fibrous materials containing silicates. Asbestos itself is completely safe, but its smallest fibers that get into the air cause inadequate reaction of the epithelium with which they contact, causing oncology of any organ, but most often causes lung and laryngeal cancer.
: в доме, построенном из асбеста, вывезенного с территории Восточной Германии (забракованного в этой стране) статистика онкологических заболеваний в 3 раза выше, чем по другим домам. An example from the practice of a district therapist : in a house built from asbestos, exported from the territory of East Germany (rejected in this country), the statistics of cancer are 3 times higher than in other houses. A foreman who worked in the construction of this house (died of breast cancer after an already operated sarcoma of the toe) reported this feature of the "fountain" building material.
According to studies of scientists, alcohol has no direct carcinogenic effect. However, it can act as a chronic chemical stimulus for the epithelium of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus and stomach, promoting the development of tumors in them. Especially dangerous are strong alcoholic beverages (over 40 degrees). Therefore, lovers of drinking alcohol risk not only cirrhosis of the liver .
Some ways to avoid the influence of chemical carcinogens
Oncogenic chemicals can affect our body in many ways:
Carcinogens in drinking water
According to the data of Rospotrebnadzor, up to 30% of natural water bodies contain prohibitive concentrations of substances dangerous to humans. Also do not forget about intestinal infections: cholera, dysentery, hepatitis A, etc. Therefore, it is better not to drink water from natural water bodies, even boiled water.
Old, worn-out water supply systems (of which in the CIS up to 70%) can cause carcinogens from the soil to enter the drinking water, namely nitrates, heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, etc. The best way to protect them is to use household water treatment systems, and Also monitor the timely replacement of filters in these devices.
Water from natural sources (wells, springs, etc.) can not be considered safe, because in the soil through which it passes can be anything from pesticides and nitrates to radioactive isotopes and chemical warfare agents.
Carcinogens in the air
The main oncogenic factors in the inhaled air are tobacco smoke, car exhaust fumes and asbestos fibers. In order not to breathe carcinogens you need:
- Quit smoking and avoid passive smoking.
- City residents are less likely to be on the street in a hot, windless day.
- Avoid using building materials containing asbestos.
Carcinogens in food
появляются в мясе и рыбе при значительном перегревании, то есть при жарке, особенно в жиру. Polycyclic hydrocarbons appear in meat and fish with significant overheating, that is, during frying, especially in fat. The repeated use of cooking fats significantly increases the PAH content in them, so household and industrial fryers are an excellent source of carcinogens. Dangerous not only french fries, belyashas or fried patties bought in a stall in the street, but also a barbecue cooked with own hands (see acrylamide in French fries, bread, coffee ).
About shish kebab is worth saying. Meat for this dish is prepared on hot coals, when there is no smoke, so PAHs do not accumulate in it. The main thing is to make sure that the shish kebab does not burn and do not use ignition means in the brazier, especially containing diesel fuel.
- Large quantities of PAH appear in food when smoking.
- It is estimated that 50 grams of smoked sausage can contain as many carcinogens as smoke from a pack of cigarettes.
- Bank sprat will reward your body with carcinogens from 60 packs.
появляются в мясе и рыбе при длительном перегревании. Heterocyclic amines appear in meat and fish during prolonged overheating. The higher the temperature and the longer the cooking - the more carcinogens appear in the meat. An excellent source of heterocyclic amines is the grilled chicken. Also, the meat cooked in the pressure cooker will contain more carcinogens than simply boiled, as the hermetically sealed container boils at a much higher temperature than in the air - rarely use a pressure cooker.
самопроизвольно образуются в овощах, фруктах и мясе из нитратов при комнатной температуре. Nitroso compounds are spontaneously formed in vegetables, fruits and meat from nitrates at room temperature. Smoking, frying and preserving greatly enhance this process. On the contrary, low temperatures inhibit the formation of nitroso compounds. Therefore, store vegetables and fruits in the refrigerator, and try to use them as raw as possible.
Carcinogens in everyday life
The main component of cheap detergents (shampoos, soaps, shower gels, bath foams, etc.) is sodium lauryl sulfate (Sodium Lauryl Sulfate -SLS or Sodium Laureth Sulfate-SLES). Some experts consider it to be oncogeneously dangerous. Lauryl sulfate reacts with many components of cosmetic preparations resulting in the formation of carcinogenic nitroso compounds (see harmful substances in cosmetics ).
When heated, plastic dishes can release carcinogens. The truth is not about the dishes made in accordance with all modern requirements. Dangerous is considered a cheap plastic category "no name". Therefore, to avoid trouble, use glassware or plastic products from well-known brands.
Many building materials can release into the environment benzene and formaldehyde - the strongest carcinogens. The conversation is about chipboard, fiberboard, MDF, laminate, oilcloth, linoleum, etc. Even expensive synthetic materials can contain harmful substances. Therefore, when carrying out finishing work, it is worth paying more attention to natural building materials.
These are the products of the life of mold fungi. The most common variant is aflatoxins, which increase the likelihood of developing liver cancer, and also affect the development of kidney and colon cancer. Mycotoxins are very stable and practically do not break down when heated and cooked. This kind of carcinogen can be contained in any food products, but they are especially rich in grains, nuts, as well as coffee beans, overdue tea (see tea bags - harm or benefit ).
The main source of mycotoxins is the "toad", which "chokes" the mistress when she sees a slightly rotten cheese, bread or a small mold stain on the jam. Such products must be discarded, since the removal of mold from products only saves you from eating the fungus itself, but not from the aflatoxins that it has already isolated.
On the contrary, low temperatures slow the release of mycotoxins, so you should use refrigerators and cold cellars more widely. Also, do not eat rotten vegetables and fruits, as well as products with expired shelf life.
Viruses capable of transforming infected cells into cancer cells are called oncogenic. These include.
- Epstein-Barr virus - causes lymphoma
- Hepatitis B virus and C virus can cause liver cancer
- Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the source of cervical cancer
In fact, oncogenic viruses are much larger, only those whose effect on tumor growth is proven are listed.
Protection from some viruses can be vaccines, for example, from hepatitis "B" or HPV. Many oncogenic viruses are transmitted sexually (HPV, hepatitis "B"), therefore, in order not to "work up" a cancer, it is necessary to avoid sexually risky behavior.
How to avoid exposure to carcinogens
From all that has been said, several simple recommendations follow, which will significantly reduce the impact of oncogenic factors on your body.
- Refuse from smoking.
- As women avoid breast cancer: refuse oral contraception , give birth to children and breastfeed for a long time, refuse substitution hormone therapy in postmenopausal women.
- Use only high-quality alcohol, preferably not very strong.
- Do not abuse beach rest, refuse to visit the solarium.
- Do not eat very hot food.
- Eat less fried and grilled food, do not re-use fat from frying pans and fryers. Preference should be given to cooked and stewed foods.
- Use a refrigerator more often. Do not buy products in dubious places and markets, watch their expiration dates.
- Drink only pure water, use water treatment filters more widely (see what water it is better to drink ).
- Reduce the use of cheap cosmetics and personal care products and household chemicals (see the harm of household chemicals and how to make cleansers themselves ).
- When carrying out finishing works at home and in the office, give preference to natural building materials.
How not to get cancer? I repeat - if you remove from your life at least some of the carcinogens, you can reduce the risk of cancer in 3 times.